I have taken the same ferry, and cycled out of the port. the seamen (?) on the ferry are very busy while loading and unloading the cargo of (mainly) cars. but, I have always found them very helpful (cycling and motorbiking), and they are there to make sure you and your bike are 'fit for travel'. I'm not sure what you mean by 'turn the bars', but generally you'll be pointed to a location up against the edge of the cargo bay. On various ferry trips I've lashed the bike down, and sometimes not bothered. I think on the ferry you're talking about I just slipped my lock around one of the various bits of pipework. just speak to the guys doing the loading (if you need assistance/time), and you'll be fine.
coming out of the port, it's a long straight road (remember the opposite side of the road), and then there are signs but it depends where you are heading. I don't know Delft, but I just looked it up and see it's in/by Den Haag. When I got that ferry I met a couple who had been touring in Yorkshire and lived in Den Haag. I was heading to Rotterdam, and I joined them on the way to Den Haag (home for them). It was 100% on tarmac cycle tracks through the dunes, pretty amazing really. it was a great day cycling.
I don't know if Google Maps works for you, but I had something like the following map printed out : http://www.routeyou.com/route/view/3300 ... tterdam.en
(zoom in to get the street turnings for port exit).
I'm not sure I've actually answered anything here, I'm afraid. when are you going ?